Challenges faced by marginalized communities such as transgenders in Pakistan. Read more at: http://ow.ly/M0yD30mlMyV
Tuesday, October 23, 2018
Thursday, August 4, 2016
Thursday, July 28, 2016
Friday, July 1, 2016
The Use of Female Sex Workers Among Men in Nepal: Prevalence, STIs/HIV-Related Risk Behaviors, and Gender Ideology
Heterosexual sex involving female sex workers (FSWs) is widely documented for its role in facilitating the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/HIV. Critical to such studies, and increasingly considered essential to HIV prevention efforts, is the gender constructs and power dynamics within relationships. However, little efforts have been made, which focus on male clients of FSWs, particularly on the relationship between gender ideologies and men’s sexual contact with FSWs, within the Nepali context.
The present study aims to fill this critical gap by assessing the prevalence of use of FSWs and its association with STIs/HIV-related risk behaviors and gender ideologies among Nepali men. We used data from the nationally representative Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) 2011. For the purpose of analyses, we included a sample of 4,121 men, aged 15–49 years. During data analyses, we used multivariate logistic regression models, adjusted for the following variables: age, region, residence, religion, educational level, wealth index, employment status, and cigarette smoking status.
Of the total sample, approximately 5% reported the use of FSWs in their lifetime. In regression models, men who had sex with FSWs were more likely to report a history of STIs, not using condom all the time, more than one sexual partner, and have had early sexual debut. Respondents reporting the endorsement of violence against wives and male sexual entitlement were significantly more likely to report sexual contact with FSWs.
Our findings highlight the need to develop and implement specifically tailored interventions toward male clients of FSWs, with a particular emphasis on promoting equitable gender roles and beliefs.
Full article at: http://goo.gl/e97o7T
1Department of Community Medicine and Health Care, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT, USA
2Institute for Collaboration on Health, Intervention, and Policy, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA
3Department of Allied Health Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA
Prim Prev Insights. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2016 Jun 27.
Published in final edited form as:
Thursday, June 30, 2016
The relationship between violence and engagement in drug dealing and sex work among street-involved youth
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- 1Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia; British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS. firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Can J Public Health. 2016 Jun 27;107(1):e88-93. doi: 10.17269/cjph.107.5219.
Saturday, June 25, 2016
Shame, Guilt, and Suicide Ideation among Bondage and Discipline, Dominance and Submission, and Sadomasochism Practitioners: Examining the Role of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide
To date, no study has examined rates of suicide ideation or theory-based risk factors for suicide ideation among bondage and discipline, dominance and submission, and sadomasochism (BDSM) practitioners. Participants were 321 adults that endorsed BDSM involvement. Thirty-seven percent of the sample indicated a nonzero level of suicide ideation. Thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness (PB) were positively associated with suicide ideation and their interactive effect predicted additional variance in suicide ideation after adjusting for depressive symptoms. Overall, shame and guilt were positively associated with suicide ideation and these relations were mediated by thwarted belongingness and PB in parallel adjusting for depressive symptoms; however, there were some differences between demographic subgroups. Among BDSM practitioners, stigma-related internalized feelings (i.e., shame and guilt) may be associated with increased thwarted belongingness and PB, which are associated with suicide ideation.
Purchase full article at: http://goo.gl/Llv4sj
- 1Department of Psychological Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA.
- Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2016 Jun 20. doi: 10.1111/sltb.12267
Tuesday, June 21, 2016
This study assessed the prevalence of exchanging sex for money or drugs among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the 2011 US National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system. Prevalence of HIV, being HIV-positive but unaware (HIV-positive-unaware), risk behaviors and use of services were compared between MSM who did and did not receive money or drugs from one or more casual male partners in exchange for oral or anal sex in the past 12 months.
Among 8411 MSM, 7.0 % exchanged sex. MSM who exchanged sex were more likely to be non-Hispanic black, live in poverty, have injected drugs, have multiple condomless anal sex partners, be HIV-positive and be HIV-positive-unaware.
In multivariable analysis, exchange sex was associated with being HIV-positive-unaware (aPR 1.34, 95 % CI 1.05-1.69) after adjusting for race/ethnicity, age, education, poverty, and injecting drugs.
MSM who exchange sex represent an important group to reach with HIV prevention, testing, and care services as they were more likely to report behavioral risk factors that put them at risk of HIV.
Purchase full article at: http://goo.gl/ptrrEk
1Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, MS-E46, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA. email@example.com.
2Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. firstname.lastname@example.org.
3Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, MS-E46, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA.
4Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
AIDS Behav. 2016 Jun 15. [Epub ahead of print]
Monday, June 20, 2016
High prevalence of unhealthy alcohol use and comparison of self-reported alcohol consumption to phosphatidylethanol among women engaged in sex work and their male clients in Cambodia
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1Department of Population Health Sciences, School of Nursing and Health Professions, University of San Francisco, 2130 Fulton St., San Francisco, CA 94117, United States. Electronic address: email@example.com.
2University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Dept. of Internal Medicine MSC 10 5550, 1 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, United States.
3National Center for HIV, AIDS, Dermatology and STDs, #245H, Street 6A, Phum Kean Khlang, Sangkat Prekleap Russey Keo, Phnom Penh, Cambodia; University of Health Sciences-Cambodia, #73 Monivong Boulevard, Srah Chak, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
4Global Health Sciences/Prevention and Public Health Group, University of California San Francisco, Mission Hall, 550 16th St., Third Fl., Box 1224, San Francisco, CA 94158, United States.
5National Center for HIV, AIDS, Dermatology and STDs, #245H, Street 6A, Phum Kean Khlang, Sangkat Prekleap Russey Keo, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
6Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, Mission Hall, 550 16th St., Third Fl., Box 1224, San Francisco, CA 94158, United States.Drug Alcohol Depend. 2016 May 21. pii: S0376-8716(16)30117-X. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.05.011. [Epub ahead of print]
The use of structural equation modelling and behavioural theory to target priority interventions to increase condom use among the intimate partners of sex workers in French Guiana
French Guiana is the French overseas territory that is most affected by HIV. Sex work seems to be an important driver of the epidemic. Although female sex workers are informed by local NGOs, they still have risky behaviours, including not using condoms with their intimate partner despite knowing HIV is highly prevalent.
The objective of this study was to find intervention targets on this specific behaviour. For this, a structural equation model (SEM) was built using assumptions from behavioural theories. Behaviour theories attempt to connect research and practice. Within the health belief model framework, perceived threats, perceived benefits, and self-perceived efficacy were tested. Vulnerability was added because of the particular context of French Guiana.
The results highlight that female sex workers’ perceived self-efficacy was central in condom use with the intimate partner (with a significant correlation coefficient of 0.52 in the SEM). The perceived self-efficacy was strongly influenced by sociodemographic factors, particularly by nationality. Female sex workers from Brazil seemed to be more comfortable about asking their intimate partner to use condoms (OR: 7.81; CI: 1.87–32.63) than sex workers of other nationalities.
These results emphasize that prevention interventions for female sex workers should emphasize their empowerment.
Purchase full article at: http://goo.gl/flHO6u
By: Marie-Claire Parriaulta*, Astrid Van Mellea, Célia Basurkoa, Leila Adriouchb, Stéphanie Rogiera, Pierre Couppiéc & Mathieu Nacherab
a INSERM CIC 1424, Cayenne General Hospital, Cayenne, French Guiana
b COREVIH Guyane, Cayenne General Hospital, Cayenne, French Guiana
c Department of Dermatology, Cayenne General Hospital, Cayenne, French Guiana
Sunday, June 19, 2016
What role does transactional sex play in the HIV/STI and reproductive health risk behaviour among high-tier entertainment centre workers in China?
China's rapid economic growth over the last three decades has led to increased population wealth and the proliferation of entertainment centres where people can conduct business, relax and meet new people. Little is known about the sexual risk behaviours of employees at high-tier entertainment centres.
This paper addresses this gap in knowledge by comparing HIV risk perception and sexual and reproductive health behaviours among female and male employees at three high-tier entertainment centres in two cities in China, comparing those who report a history of transactional sex to those who do not.
In both cities, participants who reported a history of transactional sex were more likely than those without a history of transactional sex to report multiple sexual partnerships, more lifetime sexual partners, a history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), having anal sex and/or recent abortions, and were more likely to perceive themselves to be at risk for STIs/HIV. However, risk behaviour was also high among those with no history of transactional sex.
These findings highlight the need for targeted sexual and reproductive health initiatives for employees in these work settings.
Purchase full article at: http://goo.gl/ifrptC
1 HIV Center for Clinical and Behavioral Studies , New York State Psychiatric Institute and Columbia University , New York , NY , USA.
Glob Public Health. 2015;10(8):947-67. doi: 10.1080/17441692.2015.1045918.
Saturday, June 18, 2016
Micro-level social and structural factors act synergistically to increase HIV risk among Nepalese female sex workers
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1Public Health and Environment Research Center, Kathmandu, Nepal; Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
2Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
3Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
4FHI360, Kathmandu, Nepal.
5Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
6Department of Public Health, Nobel College, Pokhara University, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Int J Infect Dis. 2016 Jun 13. pii: S1201-9712(16)31091-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2016.06.007. [Epub ahead of print]
Thursday, June 16, 2016
The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of and risk factors for engaging in sex work among youth living in Kampala, Uganda.
Analyses are based on a cross-sectional study (N = 1,134) of youth aged 12-18 years, living in the slums of Kampala, conducted in Spring of 2014. The analytic sample consisted of only sexually active youth (n = 590). Youth who reported engaging in sex work were compared to youth who did not report sex work. Multivariable analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with sex work.
Among the youth who had ever had sexual intercourse (n = 590), 13.7% (n = 81) reported engaging in sex work. Self-reported HIV prevalence was 13.9% among the total sample (n = 81) and 22.5% (n = 18) among youth engaged in sex work. Engaging in sex work was associated with being female (AOR 10.4; 95% CI: 3.9, 27.4), being an orphan (AOR 3.8; 95% CI: 1.7, 8.4), ever drinking alcohol (AOR 8.3; 95% CI 3.7, 19.0), and experiencing any rape (AOR 5.3; 95% CI: 2.9, 9.5).
The reported prevalence of sex work is high among youth in the slums of Kampala and is associated with high HIV prevalence, ever drinking alcohol, previously being raped, and being an orphan.
|81 (13.7)||509 (68.3)||590 (100)|
|12–14 years||4 (4.9)||27 (5.3)||31 (5.3)||Ref||—||0.67|
|15-16 years||15 (18.5)||116 (22.8)||131 (22.2)||0.9 (0.3–2.8)|
|17-18 years||62 (76.5)||366 (71.9)||428 (72.5)||1.1 (0.4–3.4)|
|Sex, n (%)|
|Females||76 (93.8)||271 (53.2)||347 (58.8)||Ref||Ref||∗∗|
|Males||5 (6.2)||238 (46.8)||243 (41.2)||13.4 (5.3–33.5)||10.4 (3.9–27.4)|
|Yes||67 (83.7)||480 (94.3)||547 (93.8)||Ref||Ref||∗∗|
|No||13 (16.3)||23 (5.7)||36 (6.2)||4.1 (2.0–8.4)||2.2 (0.8–5.7)|
|Christian Catholic||28 (34.6)||196 (38.5)||224 (38.0)||Ref||—||0.09|
|Christian (other)||37 (45.7)||169 (33.2)||206 (34.9)||1.5 (0.9–2.6)|
|Muslim||11 (13.6)||118 (23.2)||129 (21.9)||0.7 (0.3–1.4)|
|Other||5 (6.2)||26 (5.1)||31 (5.3)||1.3 (0.5–3.8)|
|Yes||51 (63.0)||259 (51.0)||310 (52.6)||1.6 (1.0–2.7)||—||0.05|
|No||30 (37.0)||249 (49.0)||279 (47.4)||Ref|
|No parents alive||36 (44.4)||108 (21.2)||144 (24.4)||5.4 (2.7–10.9)||3.8 (1.7–8.5)||∗∗|
|1 parent alive||33 (40.7)||205 (40.3)||238 (40.3)||2.6 (1.3–5.2)||1.7 (0.8–3.6)|
|2 parents alive||12 (14.8)||196 (38.5)||208 (35.3)||Ref||Ref|
|Ever alcohol use|
|Yes||72 (90.0)||271 (53.5)||343 (58.4)||7.8 (3.7–16.6)||8.3 (3.7–19.0)||∗∗|
|No||8 (10.0)||236 (46.5)||244 (41.6)||Ref||Ref|
|Yes||55 (67.9)||98 (19.2)||153 (25.9)||8.9 (5.3–14.9)||5.3 (2.9–9.5)||∗∗|
|No||26 (32.1)||411 (80.8)||437 (74.0)||Ref||Ref|
|Parental abuse of youth|
|Yes||35 (43.2)||197 (38.8)||232 (39.4)||1.8 (1.1–2.9)||0.8 (0.4–1.4)||0.45|
|No||46 (56.8)||311 (61.2)||357 (60.6)||Ref||Ref|
|Yes||18 (22.5)||63 (12.5)||81 (13.9)||—||—||∗|
|No||62 (77.5)||440 (87.5)||502 (86.1)|
|Yes||63 (77.8)||248 (48.7)||311 (52.7)||—||—||∗∗|
|No||18 (22.2)||261 (51.3)||279 (47.3)|
Note: P value is obtained from chi-square analyses.
aHIV and other STIs not included in the logistic regression analyses due to HIV/STI being hypothesized outcomes of commercial sex work instead of risk factors.
Full article at: http://goo.gl/vtZVwm
1School of Public Health, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 3995, Atlanta, GA 30302-3995, USA.
2Uganda Youth Development Link, P.O. Box 12659, Kampala, Uganda.
3London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK.
AIDS Res Treat. 2016;2016:5360180. doi: 10.1155/2016/5360180. Epub 2016 Apr 28.
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