PATIENTS AND METHODS:
- Most were white, were older than 25 years, were employed with above average income, and had received a formal education beyond high school.
- 93% began using AAS after the age of 18 years, and
- 81% reported using 400 mg or more of testosterone per week.
- higher incomes (≥$75,000, P=.003),
- increased testosterone dosages (>600 mg per week, P=.007),
- older age (≥35 years, P<.001),
- being married (P<.001),
- and being self-employed (P<.001).
- 93% used at least one additional performance-enhancing drug.
- 77% had routine laboratory tests performed, and
- 38% reported laboratory abnormalities at some point.
- 53% reported use of other illegal substances,
- most commonly (90%) beginning before AAS initiation.
- 10% had a criminal conviction,
- 91% of which preceded AAS use.
- 50% were felonies.
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- 1Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.
- 2Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.
- 3Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. Electronic address: Trost.Landon@mayo.edu (http://www.mayoclinic.org/biographies/trost-landon-w-m-d/bio-20055549)
- Mayo Clin Proc. 2016 Jan 5. pii: S0025-6196(15)00890-3. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2015.10.027.
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