Sunday, January 24, 2016

Herpes Simplex Virus Seroprevalence & Seroconversion among Active Duty US Air Force Members with HIV Infection

BACKGROUND:
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is associated with an increased risk of both HIV transmission and acquisition. We evaluated longitudinal HSV serology and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among active duty US Air Force (USAF) members with HIV infection.

METHODS:
USAF members diagnosed with HIV between 1996 and 2012 were included and divided into 2 groups: 1996-2004 (n=131) and 2005-2012 (n=266). HSV-1 and -2 serology was evaluated at HIV diagnosis. Longitudinal HSV-1 and -2 serology and ICD-9 codes for HSV and non-HSV STIs were also examined for those with ≥1 year of follow-up.

RESULTS:
Patients were most commonly Caucasian (44.2%) or African American (43.4%) men with a median age of 28 years at HIV diagnosis. HSV-2 seroprevalence at HIV diagnosis decreased from the period of 1996-2004 (48.8%) to 2005-2012 (30.1%). Odds of HSV-2 seropositivity was significantly greater for non-Caucasians and for HIV diagnosis between 1996 and 2004, with a trend observed for those age >30 years at HIV diagnosis. 

A total of 81 (20.4%) patients developed STIs by ICD-9 codes, including 24 (6.1%) new genital herpes diagnoses, during a median follow-up of 4.6 years. HSV-2 seroconversion occurred in 33 of 253 (13.0%) with an incidence rate of 5.07 per 100 person-years.

CONCLUSION:
Although HSV-2 seroprevalence at HIV diagnosis decreased over time, high-risk sexual behaviors were ongoing as evidenced by the high proportion of new STI diagnoses and HSV-2 seroconversions. Continued education to reduce risk behaviors is warranted to prevent acquisition and transmission of STIs in HIV-infected persons.

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  • 1San Antonio Military Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, JBSA Fort Sam Houston, TX, United States.
  • 2Institute for Health Disparities Research, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, United States.
  • 3Mike O'Callaghan Federal Medical Center, Infectious Disease Service, Nellis AFB, NV, United States.
  • 4San Antonio Military Medical Center, Infectious Disease Service, JBSA Fort Sam Houston, TX, United States. Electronic address: jason.f.okulicz.mil@mail.mil.
  •  2016 Jan;74:4-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2015.11.012. Epub 2015 Nov 14.





13 comments:

  1. I GET RID OF MY HERPES WITHIN 8 DAYS,WITH THE HELP OF DOCTOR OMOLE HERBAL MEDICINE.HERE IS DOCTOR OMOLE CONTACT NUMBER +1951-325-4097

    My name is Elena homson i am from USA, I am here to give my testimony about a doctor who helped me in my life. I was infected with HERPES in 2014, i went to many hospitals for cure but there was no solution, so I was thinking how can I get a solution out so that my body can be okay. One day I was in the trabaco side thinking where I can go to get solution. so a lady walked to me her name is kutrila telling me why am I so sad and i open up all to her telling her my problem,that i have herpes genital she told me that she can help me out, she introduce me to a doctor who uses herbal medication to cure HERPES and gave me his email, so i mail him. He told me all the things I need to do and also give me instructions to take, which I followed properly. Before I knew what is happening after one week i was cured from herpes totally and all the blister and itching was gone. so if you are you are having herpes or any kind of disease listed below and you also want cure, you can also email him at:
    doctoromoleherbalhome@gmail.com

    if you are having any type of this disease or virus kindly email doctor omole for cure
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    kindly email doctor omole for you own cure if you have any disease listed above via doctoromoleherbalhome@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  2. The Great Dr.OGONI herbal medicine is a good and perfect cure
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    everyday i am always on research looking for a perfect way to get
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    ReplyDelete
  3. I am really happy that i have been cured from (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS) with the herbal medicine of Dr OZI, i have been suffering from this disease for the past 2 years without solution until i came across the email of this doctor who have cure so many people with his herbal medicine, i also choose to give him a chance to help me and my husband, he told me what to do and i kindly did it, and he gave us his herbal medicine and direct me on how to use it, i also follow his instructions for use and he ask us to go for a check up after 1 week and 4days which i did, to my greatest surprise our result came out as negative, we are really happy that there is someone like this doctor who is ready to help anytime any day. To all the readers and viewers that is doubting this testimony stop doubting it and contact this doctor if you really have one and see if he will not actually help you. i am not a stupid woman that i will come out to the public and start saying what someone have not done for me and i know that there are some people out there who are really suffering and hurting their family just because of these diseases so you can to mail him on droziherbalcurehome @gmail.com or you can also whatsapp him on +2348060858046
    he also told me that he has cure for these diseases listed below
    . SIMPLEX AND GENITAL HERPES
    .DIABETES
    . CANCER
    .HEPATITIS
    .HIV&AIDS
    Thank you for your time bye.

    ReplyDelete
  4. My Name are Nunu Caligril i am really happy that i was cured, form (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS AND THROAT) with the using of herbal medicine of Dr EDE-MEME, i have been suffering from this disease for the past 3 years without solution until i came across the email of this herbal man who have cure so many people with his herbal medicine, i also choose to give him a chance to help me and my husband, he told me what to do and i kindly did it, and he gave us his herbal medicine and direct me on how to use it, i also follows his instruction for use and he ask us to go for a check up after 7 days and which i did, to my greatest surprise our result came out as negative, we are really happy that there is someone like this DR.EDE-MEME who is ready to help anytime any day. to all the readers and viewers that is doubting
    this testimony stop doubting it and contact this Doctor and see if he will not actually help you. i am not a stupid woman that i will come out to the public and start saying what some one have not done for me. he is really a great man contact him now. with this email: edeharbelhome@gmail.com he is waiting for your email: edeharbelhome@gmail.com or edeharbelhome22@hotmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  5. My Name are Nunu Caligril i am really happy that i was cured, form (HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS AND THROAT) with the using of herbal medicine of Dr EDE-MEME, i have been suffering from this disease for the past 3 years without solution until i came across the email of this herbal man who have cure so many people with his herbal medicine, i also choose to give him a chance to help me and my husband, he told me what to do and i kindly did it, and he
    gave us his herbal medicine and direct me on how to use it, i also follows his instruction for use and he ask us to go for a check up after 7 days and which i did, to my greatest surprise our result came out as negative, we are really happy that there is someone like this DR.EDE-MEME who is ready to help anytime any day. to all the readers and viewers that is doubting this testimony stop doubting it and contact this Doctor and see if he will
    not actually help you. i am not a stupid woman that i will come out to the public and start saying what some one have not done for me. he is really a great man contact him now. with this email: edeharbelhome@gmail.com he is waiting for your email: edeharbelhome@gmail.com or edeharbelhome22@hotmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  6. Hello everyone! Still don’t know the right words to express my Gratitude to the Great Dr.Ozolua After been diagnosed of HERPES 1 and 2 VIRUS in July, i was given so many health prescription and advice with no improvement, I totally lost hope, until i found many testimonies of Great Dr. Ozolua in an online research on google, Like anybody would be, I was very skeptical about contacting him, but i later did and he opened up to me and told me what was involved and he started the remedies for my health, i gave him a try and Thank God, i was cured from herpes permanently by the herbal medication I received from him true DHL delivery. I never thought that herpes can be cured, from the bottom of my heart I’m truly grateful,i still do not know how it was cure it highly unbelievable it just just too real to be real i pray you have long life so you can help many more people on earth with your herbal medical support. i advice any one that is living with herpes virus should Contact the Great Dr Ozolua today, because it has the cure to any problem Email him on dr.ozolua@yahoo.com or his whatsapp on +2348051421297..

    ReplyDelete
  7. I am so so happy today, I have been suffering from HIV for the past 3years now,i have spent a lot getting drugs from the hospital to keep me healthy i have tried all. means in life to become HIV negative but there was no answer until i decided to try herbal solution and i found Great dr bello on an online research, i took a lot of Faith in him because I was so in need of anything that can cure my HIV and make it negative, so i contacted him and after his powerful intervention I’m so glad that i am now HIV.Negative, i am very very happy thank you. Great dr bello for helping cure my HIV negatives and restoring me back to my normal life again and how you help me to come back newly again without any form of. crisis i promise to tell your name and your cure, also your good. deeds to the whole world. Kindly contact him for cure regarding on HIV, Herpes, Cancer and other disease. Email bellospelltemple@gmail.com. call or whtsApp him +23408147271779.

    ReplyDelete
  8. I GOT CURED FROM HERPES WITHIN 8 DAYS, AFTER USING DR OOSA HERBAL MEDICINE.

    I caught genital herpes from my ex boyfriend who never had any symptoms. I have had it for 4 months now,and it has affected my life. I have told my husband who I trusted about it and I have never had a bad reaction, it has affected my new relationships with my husband. People think herpes is really a minor skin irritation herpes has a long term effects on health. The stigma attached to this virus by ignorant people is ridiculous. Most people have herpes in one form or another. I would like to advise people on how i get rid of my herpes.i was reading a comment on the internet,and i saw a testimony posted by a woman from island that she get rid of her herpes with the help of doctor oosa. so i was so happy when i saw that post,that his herbal medication is free.i quickly collect the herbal doctor email and i email him within 5 hr he respond to my email.i explain things to him he told me not to worry that i should fill his herbal form wish i did.he only request for little money that he will use to buy the items for the preparation of the herbal medicine,wish i send to him because the pain was too much for me to bear.after some days he told me that he has prepare the herbal medicine,that i should send him my address that he want to sent it to me via DHL or FED-EX that was how i got the herbal medication.and i use it as i was told.after few days i found out that my herpes was no more.when some of my friend who has herpes saw me they were surprise and i also introduce them to the man and they are also cure from the same herpes.if you have herpes,kindly contact doctor oosa via this email doctoroosaherbalhome@gmail.com . i know people might be wondering why posting such things online but i am gland and i want each and everyone living with herpes to know that there's herpes cure because i have suffer for so many years searching for this cure.

    ReplyDelete
  9. hello everybody, I want to let the world know about DR GREAT I never thought that I will live on earth before the year runs out. I have been suffering from HERPES VIRUS GENIAL,Living with HERPES VIRUS patient just like living in hell,and never knew i could get out of this hell until i came across testimonies of people whom surfing FOR HERPES VIRUS saying thing on the internet about how this great DR GREAT African traditional doctor cured their HERPES VIRUS GENIAL.Some other people said he also CURE HIV while others who has been healed from(Cancer lung) At first i thought those testimonies where one of those bunch of trash posted by scams on the internet. But because i was desperate and wanted to try anything and everything just to get well,This disease has been trying to circulate all over my body and i have been taking treatment from my doctor but not well,so i wrote to DR GREAT telling him about my HERPES VIRUS GENIAL he told me not to worry that he will help me to be cured, hmm i never believed it, well after all the procedures and herbal cure given to me by this Dr GREAT few weeks later i started experiencing changes all over me, and suddenly after some time i was finally healed, friends i will advise if you have any sickness at all you can email him on GREATCURE34@GMAIL.COM and you are that you have herpes patient please friends i will advice you to contact him now so that you can be cure on time or call his Mobil number 09066143099 or you can add him on whatsapp :+2348032140659

    ReplyDelete
  10. i was suffering from HIV/AIDS disease for the past 6 years and ever since i have been passing through serious agony in my life,i contact this infection through my boyfriend and i have done series of tests and taking drugs to be cure but unfortunate for me i still carry this deadly infection inside of me,i will love to say i was so lucky to have came across DR BELLO several testimony online people testifying series of how they were totally cure of HIV/AIDS through his herbal medicine on his email: bellospelltemple@gmail.com i contacted him on email and explain my situation to him and he accepted to help me cure my HIV/AIDS disease,i followed his instruction and indeed he prepare a herbal medicine for me and after i receive the herbal medicine he told me how to apply the herbal medicine and after 1 weeks of usage i did the test again and i was confirmed negative. you can contact him on bellospelltemple@gmail.com or call, whatsApp his Mobil number +2348147271779

    ReplyDelete
  11. My name is Susan Morgan and and I'm from United state of America I was sick for herpes simplex virus for 8 months and I never got a cure until I contact the this man call doctor Ero who got me cure from herpes virus, and all that matters is that you are cued and is the only man who I be leave is real, contact him on is mail dreroherbaltreatment@gmail.com. Am so much happy that am heal from it after much suffering from this disease am now cure.

    ReplyDelete
  12. I have been suffering from (Herpes VIRUS) disease for the past four years and had constant pain, especially in my knees. During the first year,I had faith in God that i would be healed someday.This disease started circulating all over my body and i have been taking treatment from my doctor, few weeks ago i came on search on the internet if i could get any information concerning the prevention of this disease, on my search i saw a testimony of someone who has been healed from (Hepatitis B and Cancer) by this Man Dr OMOYE and she also gave the email address of this man and advise we should contact him for any sickness that he would be of help, so i wrote to Dr. OMOYE telling him about my (Herpes Virus) he told me not to worry that i was going to be cured!! hmm i never believed it,, well after all the procedures and remedy given to me by this man few weeks later i started experiencing changes all over me as the Dr assured me that i have cured,after some time i went to my doctor to confirmed if i have be finally healed behold it was TRUE, So friends my advise is if you have such sickness or any other at all you can email Dr OMOYE ( dromoyespellcastertemple@gmail.com) or WhatsAPP him +2349034412845

    ReplyDelete
  13. Hello, I am Richy Walters, i want to let the world know about how i got cured from HERPS. I had HERPS disease for five years and usually have eight to nine outbreak per year. I always use generic Zovirax cream during outbreaks which helps a little. I am so tired of these outbreaks and i came in conclusion of going into the internet to search for help, Recently I read about a herbal doctor named Aluta that he can help to cure my herpes virus and i wrote to him through his email: trinityhealinghospital@gmail.com, but I was afraid it may not work out well but i had to double my faith. this herbal doctor wrote back to me and of a truth after reading his reply, he assured me that i'm also going to be a living witness that there is cure for herpes virus and i was full of hope again, he told me what to do and how to go about it, i went according to the instruction given to me by doctor Aluta and just as what he told he and the date given to me by him, i got cured.

    ReplyDelete