Despite the tremendous efforts to develop a successful human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine, the quest for a safe and effective HIV vaccine seems to be remarkably long and winding. Disappointing results from previous clinical trials of VaxGen's AIDSVAXgp120 vaccine and MRKAd5 HIV-1 Gag/Pol/Nef vaccine emphasize that understanding the correlates of immune protection in HIV infection is the key to solve the puzzle. The modest vaccine efficacy from RV144 trial and the successive results obtained from the correlate of risk analysis have reinvigorated the HIV vaccine research field leading to various novel strategies. This paper will review the brief history and recent advances in HIV vaccine development.
…To date, RV144 trial is the only trial of a vaccine against HIV-1 to show any degree of efficiency. The modest vaccine efficacy from RV144 trial and the successive results obtained from the correlate of risk analysis have reinvigorated the HIV vaccine research field leading to various novel strategies. Although the quest to develop a successful HIV vaccine is long and winding, our understanding of viral immunology and immune correlate of protection has progressed remarkably during the journey. We now are starting to have a glimpse of correlate of protection in HIV infection, better understanding of the immune pathway leading to effective antibodies and newer form of vaccine immunogens. The ultimate goal of the quest to develop the successful HIV vaccine is not yet accomplished but it is evident that we are entering the modern era of HIV vaccinology.
Below: Schematic drawing of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Env trimer with sites of epitopes for broadly neutralizing antibodies. Adapted and modified from Haynes et al. (2012), Nat Biotechnol 2012;30:423-33 . The currently known four general specificity for broadly neutralizing antibodies detected are the CD4 binding site, the V1/V2 variable loops, certain exposed glycans and the membrane proximal external region (MPER). Structures expressed as follows: blue, gp120 core; dark blue, V1/V2 loops; magenta, V3 loop; green, gp41; red, MPER of gp41; light gray, viral membrane bilayer.
Full article at: http://goo.gl/6S1alY
By: So Youn Shin
Department of Infectious Diseases, International St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Kwandong University College of Medicine, Incheon, Korea.
Corresponding author: So Youn Shin, MD, PhD. Department of Infectious Diseases, International St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Kwandong University College of Medicine, 25 Simgok-ro 100beon-gil, Seo-gu, Incheon 22711, Korea. Tel: +82-32-290-3975, Fax: +82-32-290-4240, Email:moc.liamtoh@soreeehcysp
Clin Exp Vaccine Res. 2016 Jan; 5(1): 6–11. Published online 2016 Jan 27. doi: 10.7774/cevr.2016.5.1.6
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