Tuesday, February 2, 2016

The Injecting Use of Image & Performance-Enhancing Drugs (IPED) in the General Population: A Systematic Review

Injecting use of image and performance-enhancing drugs (IPED) in the general population is a public health concern. A wide and varied range of IPED are now easily accessible to all through the online market. A comprehensive literature review was undertaken according to Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) guidelines for systematic review, to identify the relevant literature. No date restrictions were placed on the database search in the case of human growth hormone melanotan I and II, and oil and cosmetic injectables. In the case of anabolic androgenic steroids search dates were restricted to January 2014-2015. Publications not in English and with a lack of specificity to the topic were excluded. 

The review yielded 133 relevant quantitative and qualitative papers, clinical trials, clinical case presentations and editorials/reports. Findings were examined/reviewed under emergent themes which identified/measured extent of use, user profiling, sourcing, product endorsement, risk behaviours and health outcomes in users. Motivation for IPED use may be grounded in appearance, pursuit of health and youth, and body image disturbance. IPED users can practice moderated use, with pathological use linked to high-risk behaviours, which may be normalised within IPED communities. Many IPED trajectories and pathways of use are not scientifically documented. Much of this information may be available online in IPED specific discussion forums, an underutilised setting for research, where uncensored discourse takes place among users. 

This review underscores the need for future internet and clinical research to investigate prevalence and patterns of injecting use, and to map health outcomes in IPED users. This paper provides community-based clinical practice and health promotion services with a detailed examination and analysis of the injecting use of IPED, highlighting the patterns of this public health issue. It serves to disseminate updated publication information to health and social policy makers and those in health service practice who are involved in harm reduction intervention.

Injectable AAS product names
Injectable AAS productKey features
Boldenone Undecylenate, e.g. Equipoise, Ganabol, Equigan and Ultragan, BoldebalStimulates red blood cell production, diverted from veterinary use
Dromostanolone Dipropionate, e.g. MasteronAnti-oestrogen effects. Recommend for use in the weeks before bodybuilding competitions. Synthetic derivative of DHT
Formebolone, e.g. EsicleneCauses temporary inflammation of the muscles, creating an increase in size
Methandrostenolone, e.g. Averbol, Dianabol, DanabolUseful in ‘bulking up’ phase where muscle is built
Methenolone Enantate, e.g. Primobolan DepotRecommended for beginners cycles, less side effects
Methyltestosterone, e.g. Android, Testred, VirilonOlder AAS, strength-enhancing effects
Nandrolone Decanoate, e.g. Deca-Durabolin, ExtrabolinePopular, less side effects
Nandrolone Laurate, e.g. LaurabolinIntended for veterinary use, promotes lean mass
Nandrolone Undecanoate, e.g. DynabolonFast acting
Stanozolol, e.g. Winstrol DepotStrongest agent available
Testosterone Esters, Suspension and Blends, e.g. Testa C, Testoviron, Sustanol, AndriolUseful in ‘bulking phase’
Testosterone hexahydrobencylcarbonate, e.g. ParabolanNo oestrogenic activity, useful in cutting phase
Trenbolone Acetate, e.g. Trenbolone, FinaplixMuch more effective than testosterone esters, less risk of side effects

Full article at:   http://goo.gl/tm0r3Q

  • 1School of Sport, Health and Exercise Science, Waterford Institute of Technology, Waterford, Ireland. 
  •  2016 Jan 25. doi: 10.1111/hsc.12326

 More about image:  http://goo.gl/oNGnqS

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