Saturday, March 26, 2016

Associations of Financial Stressors & Physical Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration

Contextual factors, such as exposure to stressors, may be antecedents to IPV perpetration. These contextual factors may be amenable to modification through intervention and prevention. However, few studies have examined specific contextual factors. To begin to address this gap, we examined the associations between financial stressors and three types of physical IPV perpetration.

This analysis used data from Wave IV of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. We used logistic regression to examine the associations of financial stressors and each type of IPV (minor, severe, causing injury), and multinomial logit regression to examine the associations of financial stressors and patterns of co-occurring types of IPV perpetration (only minor; only severe; minor and severe; minor, severe, and causing injury; compared with no perpetration).

Fewer men perpetrated threats/minor physical IPV (6.7 %) or severe physical IPV (3.4 %) compared with women (11.4 % and 8.8 %, respectively). However, among physical IPV perpetrators, a higher percentage of men (32.0 %) than women (21.0 %) reported their partner was injured as a result of the IPV. In logistic regression models of each type of IPV perpetration, both the number of stressors experienced and several types of financial stressors were associated with perpetrating each type of IPV. Utilities nonpayment, housing nonpayment, food insecurity, and no phone service were associated with increased odds of perpetrating each form of IPV in adjusted analysis. Eviction was associated with perpetrating severe physical IPV but not threats/minor IPV or IPV causing injury. In multinomial logit regression comparing patterns of IPV perpetration to perpetrating no physical IPV, the relationships of financial stressors were less consistent. Food insecurity was associated with perpetrating only minor physical IPV. Comparatively, overall number of financial stressors and four types of financial stressors (utilities nonpayment, housing nonpayment, food insecurity, and disconnected phone service) were associated with perpetrating all three forms of physical IPV.

Combined with prior research, our results suggested interventions to improve financial well-being may be a novel way to reduce physical IPV perpetration.

Estimated proportion and 95 % confidence estimates of exposure to financial stressors and perpetration of three forms of physical IPV
Percent (95 % CI)P-valuea
Financial stressors
 Number of financial stressors<.0001
  None77.2 (75.4–79.1)72.3 (70.2–74.5)
  1–216.3 (14.2–18.4)18.8 (16.8–20.8)
  3–45.2 (4.1–6.2)7.3 (6.0–8.6)
  5–61.4 (0.9–1.8)1.5 (1.0–2.0)
 Utilities nonpayment
  Yes12.7 (11.5–14.0)17.6 (15.7–19.4)<.0001
  No87.3 (86.0–88.5)82.4 (80.6–84.3)
 Housing nonpayment
  Yes9.4 (8.4–10.4)10.2 (9.0–11.3).26
  No90.6 (89.6–91.6)89.8 (88.7–91.0)
 Food insecurity
  Yes9.9 (8.7–11.1)14.0 (12.6–15.3)<.0001
  No90.1 (88.9–91.3)86.0 (84.7–87.4)
 No phone service
  Yes7.8 (6.8–8.8)10.4 (9.3–11.5)<.0001
  No92.2 (91.2–93.2)89.6 (88.5–90.7)
 Utilities turned off
  Yes5.4 (4.6–6.3)5.4 (4.6–6.1).82
  No94.6 (93.7–95.4)94.7 (93.9–95.4)
  Yes1.0 (0.7–1.4)1.0 (0.7–1.4).93
  No99.0 (95.6–99.3)98.9 (98.6–99.3)
Intimate partner violence perpetration
 Threats/Minor physical
  Yes6.7 (5.7–7.5)11.4 (10.1–12.7)<.0001
  No93.4 (92.5–94.3)88.6 (87.3–89.9)
 Severe physical
  Yes3.4 (2.9–4.0)8.8 (7.8–9.9)<.0001
  No96.6 (96.0–97.2)91.2 (90.1–92.2)
 If Yes to physical, caused injury
  Yes32.0 (25.6–38.5)21.0 (17.7–24.4).003
  No68.0 (61.5–74.4)79.0 (75.6–82.3)
aChi-square test

Full article at:

Department of Community & Behavioral Health, University of Iowa College of Public Health, Iowa City, IA 52240 USA
Department of Occupational & Environmental Health, University of Iowa College of Public Health, Iowa City, IA 52240 USA
Kempe Center for the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, 13123 E 16th Ave, B390, Aurora, CO 80045 USA

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