Tuesday, March 22, 2016

Hashish in Morocco and Lebanon A Comparative Study

  • Traditional practices of use and production of cannabis in the Maghreb and the Middle East regions.
  • Cannabis markets across the 20th century.
  • From traditional culture to industrial culture of cannabis in Morocco and Lebanon.
  • Similarities and differences between hashish in Morocco and Lebanon.
  • Global market changes on cannabis culture.
Maghreb and Middle East have a long history of consumption, production and marketing of cannabis. Over the past 12 centuries, migration, trade and different spiritual practices and trends have led to the expansion of cannabis markets. This long period is marked by stages and rifts caused by foreign interference, a worldwide prohibition of cannabis at the beginning of the 20th century and increased global demand in the 1960s. In the 1960s and the 1970s, global cannabis production increased, particularly in developing countries. Morocco and Lebanon became major producers of hashish for export to markets in West and Central Europe, Africa and the Middle East. 

The two countries have cultural and religious commonalities and similar socio-economic conditions in cannabis production areas. However, there are also some important differences in the way crop growing areas have developed in the Rif and in the Beqaa. 

Unlike in Morocco where cannabis is a traditional and locally consumed crop, cannabis consumption in Lebanon remains marginal. By using a comparative approach, this paper aims to evaluate changes in production in the traditional areas of cannabis cultivation in the Rif and the Beqaa and to better understand the role that these countries play in current trends in the global cultivation and consumption of cannabis.

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Clersé, Université Lille 1, Lille, France
Corresponding author. Clersé, Université Lille 1, Bâtiment SH2, 59 655 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex, France.

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