Wednesday, March 23, 2016

High Mortality of Disseminated Non-Tuberculous Mycobacterial Infection in HIV-Infected Patients in the Antiretroviral Therapy Era

Little information is available on the mortality and risk factors associated with death in disseminated non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection (dNTM) in HIV-infected patients in the ART-era.

In a single-center study, HIV-infected dNTM with positive NTM culture from sterile sites between 2000 and 2013 were analysed. The clinical characteristics at commencement of anti-mycobacterial treatment (baseline) were compared between those who survived and died.

Twenty-four patients were analyzed. [The median CD4 27/μL (range 2-185)]. Mycobacterium avium and M. intracellulare accounted for 20 (83%) and 3 (13%) of isolated NTM. NTM bacteremia was diagnosed in 15 (63%) patients. Seven (29%) patients died, and NTM bacteremia was significantly associated with mortality (p = 0.022). The baseline CD4 count was significantly lower in the non-survivors than the survivors (median 7/μL versus 49, p = 0.034). Concomitant AIDS-defining diseases or malignancies were not associated with mortality. Immune-reconstitution syndrome (IRS) occurred to 19 (79%) patients (8 paradoxical and 11 unmasking), and prognosis tended to be better in unmasking-IRS than the other patients (n = 13) (p = 0.078). Patients with paradoxical-IRS had marginally lower CD4 count and higher frequency of bacteremia than those with unmasking-IRS (p = 0.051, and 0.059). Treatment with systemic corticosteroids was applied in 63% and 55% of patients with paradoxical and unmasking-IRS, respectively.

dNTM in HIV-infected patients resulted in high mortality even in the ART-era. NTM bacteremia and low CD4 count were risk factors for death, whereas patients presented with unmasking-IRS had marginally better prognosis. IRS occurred in 79% of the patients, suggesting difficulty in the management of dNTM.

Below:  Patient enrollment

Full article at:

  • 1AIDS Clinical Center, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
  • 2Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan. 
  •  2016 Mar 17;11(3):e0151682. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151682. eCollection 2016.

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