Saturday, April 2, 2016

Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Male Genital Self-Image Scale in Iranian Men

Certain sexual health problems in men can be attributed to genital self-image. Therefore, a culturally adapted version of a Male Genital Self-Image Scale (MGSIS) could help health professionals understand this concept and its associated correlates.

To translate the original English version of the MGSIS into Persian and to assess the psychometric properties of this culturally adapted version (MGSIS-I) for use in Iranian men.

In total, 1,784 men were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Backward and forward translations of the MGSIS were used to produce the culturally adapted version. Reliability of the MGSIS-I was assessed using Cronbach α and intra-class correlation coefficients. Divergent and convergent validities were examined using Pearson correlation and known-group validity was assessed in subgroups of participants with different sociodemographic statuses. Factor validity of the scale was investigated using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses.

Demographic information, the International Index of Erectile Function, the Body Appreciation Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the MGSIS.

Mean age of participants was 38.13 years (SD = 11.45) and all men were married. Cronbach α of the MGSIS-I was 0.89 and interclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.70 to 0.94. Significant correlations were found between the MGSIS-I and the International Index of Erectile Function (P < .01), whereas correlation of the scale with non-similar scales was lower than with similar scale (confirming convergent and divergent validity). The scale could differentiate between subgroups in age, smoking status, and income (known-group validity). A single-factor solution that explained 70% variance of the scale was explored using exploratory factor analysis (confirming uni-dimensionality); confirmatory factor analysis indicated better fitness for the five-item version than the seven-item version of the MGSIS-I (root mean square error of approximation = 0.05, comparative fit index > 1.00 vs root mean square error of approximation = 0.10, comparative fit index > 0.97, respectively).

The MGSIS-I is a useful instrument to assess genital self-image in Iranian men, a concept that has been associated with sexual function. Further investigation is needed to identify the applicability of the scale in other cultures or populations.

Table 2Score, SD, and Cronbach α of the Seven-Item MGSIS in a Population Sample of 1,764 Men and Test-Retest Reliability in a Subsample of 1,554 Men
MeanSDICC (95% CI)Cronbach αItem-total correlation
I feel positively about my genitals2.960.740.94 (0.93–0.95)0.56
I am satisfied with the appearance of my genitals3.010.730.88 (0.87–0.90)0.63
I would feel comfortable letting a sexual partner look at my genitals2.850.950.70 (0.67–0.73)0.72
I am satisfied with the size of my genitals2.810.950.89 (0.87–0.90)0.70
I think my genitals work the way they are supposed to work3.090.750.85 (0.83–87)0.59
I feel comfortable letting a health care provider examine my genitals2.340.890.78 (0.72–0.84)0.66
I am not embarrassed about my genitals3.070.810.88 (0.86–0.89)0.61
MGSIS-720.393.880.88 (0.87–0.89)0.89
ICC = interclass correlation coefficient; MGSIS = Male Genital Self-Image Scale.

Full article at:

  • 1Health Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
  • 2Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran. Electronic address:
  • 3Department of Psychology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
  •  2016 Mar;4(1):e34-42. doi: 10.1016/j.esxm.2015.12.005. 

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