Sexual violence has been shown to increase women’s risk of HIV infection. India is a country where the HIV epidemic is growing among women and intimate partner violence is pervasive.
This study examined prevalence of and factors associated with forced sex among female sex workers (FSWs) in Chennai, India. We conducted a probability survey among FSWs in 24 slum venues and identified predictive factors for recent forced sex using univariate and multivariable proportional odds models.
Among 522 FSWs, 28% reported having forced sex with 1 partner and 35% with 2+ partners. In the final multivariable model, women who had a high number of partners who had a strong tendency to drink alcohol before sex were more likely to have experienced forced sex, and women who had both unprotected sex with a nonspousal partner and > 20 days of alcohol consumption in the last 30 days were more likely to have experienced forced sex.
Discussion about family violence with larger social networks was independently associated with lower odds of forced sex among FSWs. HIV interventions for FSWs and their clients aimed at reducing alcohol consumption and encouraging condom use could be enhanced by violence prevention interventions to facilitate discourse about sexual violence.
|Independent Variable Combinations||OR [95% CI]|
|Any unprotected sex with non-spousal partner in last 3 mos?|
|No. days alcohol consumed in last 30 days|
|No. people spoke with about family violence in last 3 mos|
|No. partners with strong tendency to drink alcohol before sex|
Under the proportional odds assumption, the odds ratios apply to either of the two odds ratios being modeled – the odds ratio for forced sex by 2 or more partners relative to forced sex by one or less partners and the odds ratio for forced sex by any partner relative to forced sex by no partners. A significant interaction was found between unprotected sex with a non-spousal partner and alcohol consumption of the sex worker.
Full article at: http://goo.gl/Z1tmf1
By: Vivian F. Go,1 Aylur K. Srikrishnan,2 Corette Breeden Parker,3 Megan Salter,1 Annette M. Green,3 Sudha Sivaram,1Sethulakshmi C. Johnson,2 Carl Latkin,1 Wendy Davis,1 Suniti Solomon,2 and David D. Celentano1
1Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA
2YRG Centre for AIDS Research and Education, Chennai, India
3Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA
*Correspondence and request for reprints should be addressed to: Vivian Go, PhD, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Infectious Diseases Program, Department of Epidemiology, 615 North Wolfe Street, Suite E-6610, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA, Fax: 1-410-955-1383, Tel: 1-410-614-4755
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