Monday, February 1, 2016

Prevalence of Primary HIV Drug Resistance in Thailand Detected by Short Reverse Transcriptase Genotypic Resistance Assay

HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) is the major cause of treatment failure after scaling up of antiretroviral therapy (ART). HIVDR testing prior to ART initiation is not routinely performed in resource-limited settings. We aimed to assess the prevalence of primary HIVDR by short reverse transcriptase (RT) genotypic resistance assay and evaluate of the impact of the mutations on the treatment outcomes.

A prospective cohort study was conducted in treatment-na├»ve HIV-infected patients. Fourteen major mutations of codon 99–191 on the RT gene were selected (K103N, V106A/M, V108I, Q151M, Y181C/I, M184V/I, Y188C/L/H, and G190S/A) at a cost of testing of 35 USD. The association between the presence of primary HIVDR and undetectable HIV RNA (<50 copies/mL) after 6 months of ART was determined.

A total of 265 HIV-infected patients were included, with a median age of 35.2 (range, 16.8–75.2) years; 62.6% were males. The median (interquartile range) CD4 cell count at ART initiation was 216 (77–381) cells/mm3. The overall prevalence of primary HIVDR was 7.9%. The prevalence of each HIVDR mutation were K103N 6.0%, V106I 1.1%, V108I 0.4%, Y181C 2.3%, Y181I 0.7%, Y181V 0.4%, M184V 3.0%, M184I 1.5%, and G190A 2.3%. No associated factor of having primary HIVDR was determined. By multiple stepwise logistic regression, factors associated with undetectable HIV RNA after 6 months of ART were: having M184V/I (odds ratio [OR] 0.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.02–0.62, p = 0.013), condom use (OR 2.38; 95% CI 1.12–5.06, p = 0.024), and adherence per 5% increase (OR 1.16; 95% CI 1.00–1.35, p = 0.044).

The prevalence of primary HIVDR is approximately 8%; it is associated with detectable HIV RNA at 6 months after ART initiation. Routine “short RT” genotypic resistance assay should be considered in resource-limited settings to maximize treatment outcome.

Below:  Prevalence of primary HIV drug resistance mutations, from short reverse transcriptase genotypic resistance assay

Full article at:

Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul, Subencha Pinsai, Somnuek Sungkanuparph
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

Wasun Chantratita, Ekawat Pasomsub
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand

Manoon Leechawengwongs
Vichaiyut Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand

Wilawan Thipmontree, Nirada Siriyakorn
Department of Medicine, Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital, Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand

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