Many populations have been exposed to environmental lead from paint, petrol, and mining and smelting operations. Lead is toxic to humans and there is emerging evidence linking childhood exposure with later life antisocial behaviors, including delinquency and crime. This study tested the hypothesis that childhood lead exposure in select Australian populations is related to subsequent aggressive criminal behaviors.
We conducted regression analyses at suburb, state and national levels using multiple analytic methods and data sources. At the suburb-level, we examined assault rates as a function of air lead concentrations 15–24 years earlier, reflecting the ubiquitous age-related peak in criminal activity. Mixed model analyses were conducted with and without socio-demographic covariates. The incidence of fraud was compared for discriminant validity. State and national analyses were conducted for convergent validity, utilizing deaths by assault as a function of petrol lead emissions.
Suburb-level mixed model analyses showed air lead concentrations accounted for 29.8 % of the variance in assault rates 21 years later, after adjusting for socio-demographic covariates. State level analyses produced comparable results. Lead petrol emissions in the two most populous states accounted for 34.6 and 32.6 % of the variance in death by assault rates 18 years later.
The strong positive relationship between childhood lead exposure and subsequent rates of aggressive crime has important implications for public health globally. Measures need to be taken to ameliorate exposure to lead and other environmental contaminants with known neurodevelopmental consequences.
Below: Scatterplot showing the relationships between lead in air concentrations and assault rates 21 years later for all six suburbs
Below: Scatterplot showing the relationship between lead petrol emissions and death by assault rates 18 years later for NSW
Below: Lead in air concentrations and assault rates for six suburbs, 1973–1999
Full article at: http://goo.gl/b4c2Wb
Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Macquarie University Energy and Environmental Contaminants Research Centre, Sydney, NSW Australia
Centre for Emotional Health, Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW Australia
Macquarie Law School, Faculty of Arts, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW Australia
Department of Marketing and Management, Faculty of Business and Economics, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW Australia
Department of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, BC Canada
Mark Patrick Taylor, Email: email@example.com.
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